This is an orthographic projection into 3D of the 8 dimensional polytope of the roots of the E8 Lie group, labeled by Coxeter as the 4_21
semiregular uniform 8-polytope, and projected into 3 dimensions. It is the basis of Antony Garrett Lisi's "An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything" which hopes to unite all of the subatomic particles and forces in a single theory. (See Wikipedia, 421
and http://theoryofeverything.org/theToE/ ). This was created by J. Gregory Moxness, whose Mathematica notebook is available on his TheoryOfEverything website (see above).
The 8D polytope has 240 vertices (shown with spheres: one for each of the predicted 240 elementary particles) and 6720 edges. But this projection, which consists of two concentric 600-cells (also projected into 3D), has overlapping vertices, leaving a total of 137 of the 240 vertices visible (see the attached image):
60 do not overlap (displayed in Yellow)
128 overlap twice (64 overlap with 64 others = 64 displayed in Orange)
52 overlap 4 times (13 overlap with 39 others = 13 displayed in Magenta).
While there are 6720 edges, the overlapping vertices reduces this to 3384 non-zero length visibe edges. Due to its complexity, the model had to be 'voxelized' (reduced to tiny 'voxels' of volume), then returned to a surface mesh.