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Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes that cleave fatty acid in position two of phospholipids, hydrolyzing the bond between the second fatty acid “tail” and the glycerol molecule. This particular phospholipase specifically recognizes the sn-2 acyl bond of phospholipids and catalytically hydrolyzes the bond, releasing arachidonic acid and lysophosphatidic acid. Upon downstream modification by cyclooxygenases or lipoxygenases, arachidonic acid is modified into active compounds called eicosanoids. Eicosanoids include prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are categorized as anti-inflammatory and inflammatory mediators PLA2 enzymes are commonly found in mammalian tissues as well as arachnid, insect, and snake venom. Venom from both snakes and insects is largely composed of melittin, which is a stimulant of PLA2. Due to the increased presence and activity of PLA2 resulting from a snake or insect bite, arachidonic acid is released from the phospholipid membrane disproportionately. As a result, inflammation and pain occur at the site. There are also prokaryotic A2 phospholipases.Additional types of phospholipases include phospholipase A1, phospholipase B, phospholipase C, and phospholipase D.