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This is a monomer of insulin. The monomer actively promotes glucose absorption from the blood to skeletal muscles and fat tissue. When not in use, insulin is stored in the body as a hexamer - a unit of six insulin molecules.
Produced by beta cells in the pancreas, insulin plays a crucial role in the body's ability to regulate and store sugar in the blood stream. Diabetes mellitus can result when the body loses control over insulin synthesis. In Type 1, the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells which leads to an insulin deficiency. Type 2 Diabetes generally arises from a variety of factors, including genetic-susceptibility, obesity, age, and physical inactivity. In Type 2, cells become desensitized to insulin, resulting in dangerously high and low levels of sugar in the blood.