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The crystal structure of a host defense system chemotactic factor, interleukin 8, has been solved by molecular replacement using as a model the solution structure derived from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. The structure was refined with 2 A x-ray data to an R factor of 0.187 (0.217 at 1.6 A). A comparison indicates some potential differences between the structure in solution and in the crystalline state. Our analysis also predicts that residues 4 through 9 on the amino terminus and the beta-bend, which includes His-33, may be important for receptor binding.