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Ferritin is important in iron homeostasis. Its twenty-four chains of two types, H and L, assemble as a hollow shell providing an iron-storage cavity. Ferritin molecules in cells containing high levels of iron tend to be rich in L chains, and may have a long-term storage function, whereas H-rich ferritins are more active in iron metabolism. The molecular basis for the greater activity of H-rich ferritins has until now been obscure, largely because the structure of H-chain ferritin has remained unknown owing to the difficulties in obtaining crystals ordered enough for X-ray crystallographic analysis. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of a human ferritin H-chain homopolymer. By genetically engineering a change in the sequence of the intermolecular contact region, we obtained crystals isomorphous with the homologous rat L ferritin and of high enough quality for X-ray diffraction analysis. The X-ray structure of human H ferritin shows a novel metal site embedded within each of its four-helix bundles and we suggest that ferroxidase activity associated with this site accounts for its rapid uptake of iron.