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Mount St. Helens
(known as Lawetlat'la
to the indigenous Cowlitz people
, and Loowit
to the Klickitat
) is an active stratovolcano
located in Skamania County, Washington
, in the Pacific Northwest
region of the United States. It is 96 miles (154 km) south of Seattle
, and 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Portland
, Oregon. Mount St. Helens takes its English name from the British diplomat Lord St Helens
, a friend of explorer George Vancouver
who made a survey of the area in the late 18th century.
The volcano is located in the Cascade Range
and is part of the Cascade Volcanic Arc
, a segment of the Pacific Ring of Fire
that includes over 160 active volcanoes. This volcano is well known for its ash
explosions and pyroclastic flows
Mount St. Helens is most notorious for its major 1980 eruption
, the deadliest and most economically destructive volcanic event in the history of the United States.
Fifty-seven people were killed; 250 homes, 47 bridges, 15 miles (24 km) of railways, and 185 miles (298 km) of highway were destroyed. A massive debris avalanche
triggered by an earthquake measuring 5.1 on the Richter scale caused an eruption
that reduced the elevation of the mountain's summit from 9,677 ft (2,950 m) to 8,363 ft (2,549 m), leaving a 1 mile (1.6 km) wide horseshoe-shaped crater.
The debris avalanche was up to 0.7 cubic miles (2.9 km3) in volume.
The Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument
was created to preserve the volcano and allow for its aftermath to be scientifically studied.
As with most other volcanoes in the Cascade Range, Mount St. Helens is a large eruptive cone consisting of lava
rock interlayered with ash, pumice
, and other deposits. The mountain includes layers of basalt
through which several domes
lava have erupted. The largest of the dacite domes formed the previous summit, and off its northern flank sat the smaller Goat Rocks dome. Both were destroyed in the 1980 eruption.
The model is created at a scale of 1:50,000 with 1.75x vertical exaggeration. It features a built-in base, so it sits perfectly on a desk or in a frame.
Model Data Sources: USDA / USGS