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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation. Specific inflammatory conditions in which it is used include Kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever. Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death. Aspirin is also used long-term to help prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots, in people at high risk. Aspirin may also decrease the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. For pain or fever, effects typically begin within 30 minutes. Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and works similar to other NSAIDs but it is also an antiplatelet and suppresses the normal functioning of platelets. Aspirin, in the form of leaves from the willow tree, has been used for its health effects for at least 2,400 years. In 1853, chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt treated sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride to produce acetylsalicylic acid for the first time. In the second half of the nineteenth century, other chemists established the chemical structure and came up with more efficient methods to make it. In 1897, scientists at Bayer began studying acetylsalicylic acid as a less-irritating replacement for common salicylate medicines.