In 1943, the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., and the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., began development of a submarine-launched, antisurface ship torpedo designated Torpedo Mk 16. The decision to use "Navol" (concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2O)) as an oxidant came as a result of research on chemical torpedoes which began in 1915. Torpedo Mk 16, which was also produced at the Torpedo Station in Newport, and at the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill., had the same physical characteristics as the Mk 14 Mod 3 torpedo. As a result of World War II, production began before development was completed on this torpedo. None of the Mk 16 torpedoes were used in combat, although 60 units were completed prior to the end of the war. Production continued in post-World War II years, however, with over 1700 Torpedoes Mk 16 manufactured. The final version was Torpedo Mk 16 Mod 8 which was withdrawn from service use in 1975.