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ATP Synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the most commonly used "energy currency" of cells for most organisms. It is formed from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). The overall reaction catalyzed by ATP synthase is: ADP + Pi + H+out ⇌ ATP + H2O + H+in. The formation of ATP from ADP and Pi is energetically unfavorable and would normally proceed in the reverse direction. In order to drive this reaction forward, ATPase couples ATP synthesis during cellular respiration to an electrochemical gradient created by the difference in proton (H+) concentration across the mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes or the plasma membrane in bacteria. During photosynthesis in plants, ATP is synthesized by ATPase using a proton gradient created in the thylakoid lumen through the thylakoid membrane and into the chloroplast stroma.