The hard way is to use the "Render to Texture" tools in the render menu, but that bakes in lighting too, and unwraps the faces so that there may be many copies of the texture shown. That is kind of a waste of pixels and unnecessarily complicated.
Or, assuming it is a 2D procedural texture, you can just make a nice sharp rendering of a plane with the material from an orthographic viewport, then crop and resize it in an image editor. Bring that image back into a Max material and place it as desired with a UVW modifier. You probably know about editing the image path in the VRML after exporting. Things should go smoothly from there.